How is language Arbitrary?
There is no logical relation between the sound or written word and the object. Same object have different names in different areas shows that there is no logical relation between word and object. So, language is arbitrary.
How is linguistics a Science?
Linguistics is the scientific study/ systematic study of language. In linguistics the method is applied by making observations, testing hypotheses and deriving theories. So, linguistics is a science but social science not a practical science.
What is meant by Synchronic and Diachronic study of language?
Synchronic study of language is the study of language at a fix point or present but Diachronic study of language is the study of language change or study of language through history.
How does Ferdinand de Saussure make a distinction between Langue and Parole?
According to Ferdinand de Saussure the distinction between langue and parole is that langue is the structure of language in the mind/grammar of language in mind and the parole is the speech or written language.
What does Noam Chomsky mean by Competence?
According to Noam Chomsky competence mean the linguistic knowledge of the native speaker to understand and speak.
How does Noam Chomsky argue about Performance?
According to Noam Chomsky the performance is the actual use of language in concrete situation. It is like Parole as described by Ferdinand de Saussure.
What is LAD according to Chomsky?
According to Noam Chomsky the LAD (Language Acquisition Device) is instinctive mental facility to acquire and speak language.
What are different Organs of Speech?
The different Speech Organs are teeth, lips, tongue, nasal cavity, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum (soft palate), uvula and glottis etc.
What is meant by Received Pronunciation (RP)?
Received Pronunciation (RP) means the standard accent of British English Language. It is associated with formal speech.
Differentiate between Dialect and Idiolect.
Dialect is variety of language used by a social or regional group and Idiolect is the variety of language used by an individual.
Register is the use of variety of language by the group of peoples of different professions like lawyers and doctors etc.
Syntax is the arrangement of word to create a phrase or sentence in language. It is grammar or the rules to construct a sentence.
Differentiate between Pidgin and Creole.
Pidgin is the mixture of multi languages used by traders as second language and Pidgin when used by the peoples as first language it becomes Creole or Linguafranca.
What are Bound and Free Morphemes?
Bound Morphemes are element of a word with prefixes or suffixes cannot stand alone as a word but Free Morphemes stand alone, a single morpheme as a word.
What is multilingualism? Give examples.
Multilingualism means use of two or more languages by an individual or society. for example Punjabi and Urdu or Sindhi, Punjabi and Urdu etc.
What is code switching and code mixing?
Code Switching is using more than one language and changing from one language to another but Code Mixing is using more than one language as mixture, use of multi languages in one sentence.
What is language lateralization?
Language lateralization refers to the functions of the left and right hemispheres in the brain and distinct functions of left and right hemisphere.
What is the difference between derivational morpheme and inflectional morpheme?
Inflectional morpheme is a morpheme that does not change the category of the word like smaller from small these both are adjectives. For example: great greater, tall taller, old older and short shorter.
Derivational morpheme is a morpheme that change the category of the word like movement from move here movement is a noun and move is a verb. Improve improvement, easy easily and entertain entertainment.
What is the difference between voiced and voiceless sounds?
Voiced sounds are those in which vocal chords vibrate and in voiceless sounds vocal chords do not vibrate. For example “v, m, n, b and d” are voiced and “s, h and f” are voiceless.
What are infixes?
Infixes are affixes that inserted nor in beginning neither at the end but in the base word. For example: cupsful from cupful.
What is Hyponymy?
The semantic relation of words between specific words and its general or broader term is called Hyponymy. For example Rose and flower, gaze and see, Mango and fruit.
What is elision? Discuss briefly.
Elision in linguistic is the omission of sounds of vowel, consonant, syllable, word or phrase for the easy pronunciation.
Language can be described as a cognitive ability. Discuss briefly
Language can be described as cognitive ability because through learning the grammatical rules and vocabulary we can speak language. For example second language learning through grammatical method.
Define the scope of Morphology with examples.
In morphology we study the structure of word or shape of word. Morphology helps us to understand structure of words easily. For example balls consist of ball+s, clothes consist of cloth+es in these words the morphemes s and es show the plural form of a word.
List and elaborate parameters for the description of English vowel sounds.
Vowel parameters used in the description of English vowel sounds are tongue height, tongue advancement and lips’ position. That tongue movement is high, mid or low, tongue advancement is towards front, center or at the back and lips’ position is rounded or unrounded.
Differentiate between free morpheme and bound morpheme?
Free morpheme is an independent morpheme, it is a minimal meaningful unit and bound morpheme is dependent morpheme, its meaning depends upon other morpheme. For example; ‘dogs’ here ‘dog’ is free morpheme and ‘s’ is bound morpheme which shows plural form.
How would you define pitch movement in language?
Pitch movement is created through the vibration of vocal folds.
Compare behavioristic and cognitive theories of language learning.
Behavioristic theory base on the stimulus-response that does something and have reward or punishment.
Cognitive theory base on understanding, that you understand the rules of language and can speak or write that language.
Define connotative and denotative meaning with examples.
Denotative meanings are the dictionary meanings or precise, basic and specific meanings, and connotative meanings are the associations with the word like metaphor and symbolic meanings.
Define Alveolar sounds. Give examples.
Alveolar is the ridge behind the teeth and alveolar sound is produced when blade of tongue touch or near to touch the alveolar ridge. For example; the consonant sound of d, t and n.
Define syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations with examples.
The syntagmatic is concern the positioning of the words and phrases or lateral positioning. Paradigmatic is concerning the substitution words or vertical relation. For example; syntagmatic: He goes to the school. To the school he goes. Paradigmatic: He goes to the school. He goes to the home.
What is Displacement in the study of language?
Displacement in the study of language is language’s capability to communicate those things which are not present at that time.
What are minimal pairs?
Minimal pairs are the pair of words which differs only single phonological element and have different meanings. For example; tall and fall, sale and safe, and bit and bat.