Short Questions and Answers of ‘Literary forms and movements’

What is a round character?
A round character is a complex and dynamic. In this character improvement and change occurs during the course of work .

What is a soliloquy?
Soliloquy is a device use in drama in which a character speaks to himself or herself (thinking loud) by showing his feelings or thoughts to audience.

What is a Shakespearian sonnet?
Shakespearian sonnet consists of three quatrains and final couplet, written in iambic pentameter and having rhyme scheme abab cdcd efef gg.

What is a Lyric?
Lyric is a short poem in which poet’s own feelings and emotions are expressed normally having musical quality to sing.

What is the difference between metaphor and simile?
A figurative comparison between two things by using the word “like” or “as” is a simile and direct figurative comparison without “like or as” is a metaphor. “Her cheeks like rose” is a simile and “all the world is a stage” is a metaphor.



What is heroic couplet?
Heroic couplet is a rhyming couplet written in iambic pentameter and it is traditionally used in epic and narrative poetry.

What is oxymoron?
Oxymoron is a figure of speech in which two opposite terms used together to reveal paradox. Example: seriously funny, original copy, working holiday, constant variable etc.

What is Neo-classicism?
Neo-classicism is a eighteenth century western movement of art, literature and architecture. They got inspiration from ancient Greece and ancient Rome.

What is a mock-epic?
Mock-epic is a poem in which satire, exaggeration, irony and sarcasm is used to mock the subject or used the epic style for the trivial subject etc.

Write the name of two famous epics in English Literature?
“The Paradise Lost” by Milton and “Fairy Queen” by Spenser are the famous epics in English Literature.

What is a complex plot?
A complex plot according to Aristotle is that have ‘peripeteia’ (reversal) and ‘anagnorisis’ (denouement) without these is a simple plot.


What is novella?
Novella is a narrative fictional work longer than story and shorter than novel.

Write down the definition of Tragedy?
According to Aristotle: “A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious, and also as having magnitude, complete in itself in language with pleasurable accessories, each kind brought in separately in the parts of the work; in a dramatic, not in a narrative form: with incidents arousing pity and fear; wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions”. (Ch-6 Poetics)

What is interior monologue?
Interior monologue is the expression of internal thought, feelings and emotions of a character in dramatic or narrative form.

What is blank verse?
Blank verse is a form of poetry that written in iambic pentameter but un-rhymed.

What is Art for Arts’ sake?
“Art for Arts’ sake” is nineteenth century literary movement which gives importance to aesthetic pleasure instead of moral, didactic or utilitarian function of literature.

Define Dactylic meter?
Dactylic meter is made of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables like typical, humanly and difficult etc.


What is Epistolary novel?
Epistolary novel is a narrated work. In this type of novel the story is narrated through letters sent by the observer or by those who participating in the events. Example: 18th century’s novel ‘Richardson’s Pamela and Clarissa etc.

Differentiate between novel and novella.
Difference between novel and novella is length of the narrative work. Novella is shorter than novel and longer than short story but novel is long narrated work.

Define sonnet? What is the structure of Shakespearian sonnet?
Sonnet is a fourteen line poetry written in iambic pentameter having some rhyming scheme. Shakespearian sonnet consists of three quatrains and final couplet with rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg.

What is the difference between “Open form poetry” and “Closed form poetry”?
Close form poetry used the fix pattern of stanza, rhyme and meter etc. For example: sonnet, limerick, haiku and sestina etc. Open form poetry does not use these fix patterns.

What is the structure of Spenserian stanza?
Spenserian stanza consist of nine lines, eight lines are in iambic pentameter and followed by single line in iambic hexameter. The last line is called Alexandrine.

Differentiate between ‘Blank verse’ and ‘Free verse’.
‘Blank verse’ follows the fix meter like iambic pentameter and un-rhymed but ‘Free verse’ is also un-rhymed and does not follow the fix meter.


How can you define “Pastoral elegy”?
Pastoral elegy is a poem about death. In this poem poet expresses his grief for the dead in rural setting or about the shepherds.

What is ‘Point of View’?
‘Point of view’ is an opinion, judgment or attitude on a matter. It may be against are in favor.

Define plot. What are its various elements?
Plot is a logical arrangement of events in a story or play. The exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution are the elements of plot.

What is conflict?
Conflict is a problem or struggle in a story or play. It occurs in rising action, climax and falling action. It creates suspense and excitement in the story or play.

How can you explain catharsis?
Term catharsis used by Aristotle in the definition of tragedy. It is the release of emotions of pity and fear.

Define black comedy.
Black comedy is a humorous work in which human suffering regards as absurd and funny.

What is comedy of manners?
Comedy of manners is a humorous work in which the manners of society or class satirized. For example: “The importance of being Ernest” by Oscar Wilde.


What do you mean by Theater of the absurd?
“Theater of the absurd” is one kind of drama in which absurdity emphasized and lack realistic and logical structure. For example: “Waiting for Godot” by Samuel Beckett.

How can you differentiate between flat and round characters?
A round character is a complex and dynamic. In this character improvement and change occurs during the course of work but flat character are uncomplicated and remains unchanged through the course of work.

What was the Oxford movement?
Oxford movement starts in 1833 and for the revival of Catholic doctrine in Anglican Church. It is against the conventional understanding of the religion.

Define Puritanism?
Puritanism is the religious movement starts in sixteen century and the goal of the movement is to purify the church of England from its Catholic practices.

What is Imagism?
Imagism is a movement of Anglo-American poets started in early nineteenth century in which they emphasize the use of clear images and simple and sharp language.

What is meant by Stream of Consciousness?
Stream of Consciousness is a technique of narration in which the series of thoughts in the mind of the character are presented. “To the Lighthouse” by Virginia Woolf is one example.

What is your understanding about the word Renaissance?
Renaissance is a French word means rebirth. It is a literary movement of fourteenth century to sixteenth century the revival of literature takes place in this period. The Renaissance writers are Shakespeare, Christopher Marlow etc.


What is meant by Gothic Novel?
Gothic Novel is one type of novel. In this type the cruel passions and supernatural terror is presented. Example: Monastery or Haunted Castle etc.

What is Metaphysical Poetry?
Metaphysical poetry is a highly intellectualized poetry with the use of wit, imagery, conceits and paradox etc. It is obscure and rigid. For example: “John Donne’s poetry”.

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